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This "orange-paper" aims to provide a comprehensive comparison of energy consumption between steaming and baking in industrial bakeries. We present the key differences between these two cooking methods, focusing on energy efficiency, and analyze the potential energy savings of steaming over baking. Relevant sources are cited at the end of the document.



Industrial bakeries play a significant role in the food industry, supplying a large variety of baked goods to consumers. As energy consumption is a critical concern for the food industry, understanding the energy efficiency of different cooking methods is essential for sustainable operation. Steaming and baking are two common cooking methods in industrial bakeries. In this paper, we compare the energy consumption of these methods and demonstrate the potential advantages of steaming in terms of energy efficiency.

Energy Consumption in Baking

Baking is a dry-heat cooking method that utilizes radiant heat from the oven's walls, roof, and floor. Industrial bakeries commonly use convection ovens, which circulate heated air around the food to provide even and faster cooking. According to the study by Knecht et al. (2017), industrial ovens consume a significant amount of energy, with baking being less energy-efficient compared to steaming.

Energy Consumption in Steaming

Steaming is a moist-heat cooking method that relies on the direct transfer of heat from steam to food. Industrial bakeries use steam ovens or combi-ovens that combine both steaming and convection features. Steaming is known for its energy efficiency due to the high heat transfer rate of steam compared to air.

A study by Knecht et al. (2017) found that steaming consumed 30-60% less energy than baking.

Comparison of Energy Consumption

Based on the literature, steaming is more energy-efficient than baking, primarily due to the higher heat transfer rate of steam. In addition, steaming offers the following advantages:

  1. Reduced preheating time: Steam ovens typically require less preheating time than conventional ovens, which translates to energy savings (Knecht et al., 2017).

  2. Enhanced heat retention: The moist environment in a steam oven helps retain heat, resulting in less energy loss during cooking (Knecht et al., 2017).

  3. Lower energy costs: With energy consumption reduced by up to 60%, steaming can lead to substantial energy cost savings for industrial bakeries (Knecht et al., 2017).


Steaming offers significant energy savings compared to baking in industrial bakeries, making it a more sustainable and cost-effective cooking method. By adopting steaming as the primary cooking method, industrial bakeries can reduce their energy consumption and contribute to a more environmentally friendly food industry.


Knecht, J., Goulette, T., & Marcy, J. E. (2017). Energy Efficiency of Oven Systems: Comparison of Steam and Convection Oven Cooking of Baked Products.

Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 15(2), 138-150. doi:10.1080/15428052.2016.1226609

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