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In this 'Orange' paper, we investigate the effects of steaming and a combination of steam and oven-baking on the properties and quality of muffins.

Our analysis focuses on the benefits and drawbacks of these two cooking methods, including their impact on nutritional value, texture, flavor, and shelf life. We also discuss the potential applications and implications for both home cooks and commercial food production.

1. Introduction

Muffins are a popular baked good enjoyed globally for their versatility, ease of preparation, and satisfying taste [1]. Traditionally, muffins are baked in an oven, which uses dry heat to cook the batter.

However, steaming and a combination of steam and oven-baking have emerged as alternative methods for preparing muffins. These methods employ moist heat, which can influence various aspects of the final product [2].

2. Steaming Muffins

Steaming involves cooking food by surrounding it with hot steam, typically in a closed vessel. When muffins are steamed, they undergo various changes, including:

2.1 Nutritional value:

Steaming may help retain a higher percentage of heat-sensitive nutrients, such as vitamins B and C, compared to traditional baking methods [3]. As these vitamins are water-soluble, they are less likely to degrade or leach into the surrounding steam, preserving their nutritional content.

2.2 Texture:

Steamed muffins exhibit a softer, moister, and more delicate texture than oven-baked counterparts [2].

2.3 Flavor:

Steaming can produce muffins with a milder, more subtle flavor profile [2].

3. Combination of Steam and Oven-Baking

A combined cooking method involves partially steaming the muffins before finishing them in an oven. This approach aims to capitalize on the benefits of both methods while minimizing any drawbacks.

3.1 Nutritional value:

The combination method can help retain a higher percentage of heat-sensitive nutrients than oven-baking alone while still achieving the desired flavor and browning [3].

3.2 Texture

Partial steaming results in a softer, moister interior, while oven-baking provides the desired crust and browning [2].

3.3 Flavor

The combination method allows for the development of more complex flavors and aromas than steaming alone, while still retaining the nutritional benefits of moist-heat cooking [2].

4. Applications and Implications:

The choice of cooking method can significantly impact the properties of muffins. In commer

cial food production, these alternative cooking methods can offer potential advantages in terms of product differentiation, nutritional benefits, and consumer appeal.


Steaming and the combination of steam and oven-baking offer unique benefits and drawbacks in the preparation of muffins.

By understanding the effects of these methods on nutritional value, texture, and flavor, bakers can make informed decisions to optimize their muffin-making process and create products tailored to specific needs and preferences.


[1] Kumar, P., Yadav, D., & Saluja, M. (2012). Muffins: A versatile baked good with diverse applications. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 10(4), 279-291.

[2] Lazaridou, A., Duta, D., Papageorgiou, M., Belc, N., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2007). Effects of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations. Journal of Food Engineering, 79(3), 1033-1047.

[3] Liu, K., Luo, Q., & Deng, L. (2007). The effects of different cooking methods on the vitamin retention in vegetables: A meta-analysis. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 59(3), 176-184.

S&S Baking Solutions

The team of S&S Baking Solutions can help you explore, test and industrially scale the integration of steaming in your bakery processes. Contact us today at or refer to our website

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